184.108.40.206. Strategic goals and business model of the Division
JSC Rosenergoatom Concern is the leading company of the Division. It performs functions of the operating organisations with regard to all NPPs operated in Russia. It is also the principal customer of all NPPs under construction in the Russian Federation.
Strategic goals of the Power Generation Division:
- safe, efficient and reliable functioning of existing NPPs, ensuring nuclear and radiation safety at the nuclear facilities, ensuring physical protection of nuclear installations and nuclear material and protection of personnel, the general public and the environment;
- increasing electricity production while ensuring the required level of safety;
- closing the nuclear fuel cycle based on power units for BN-1200 and VVER-TOI reactors, along with MOX-fuel;
- implementation of small and medium NPP construction projects;
- increasing the share of nuclear generation through a growth of NPP installed capacity and nuclear generation while ensuring the required safety level;
- development of international activities;
- improvement of NPP operating efficiency;
- improvement of the efficiency of civil engineering designs for NPPs.
The business model of the Division is provided in the annual report of JSC Rosenergoatom Concern for 2013.
220.127.116.11. Results of 2013
Main production results:
- the share of electricity produced by NPPs of the total electricity generation in Russia reached 16.8 %;
- 172.22 billion kWh of electricity was produced. The nuclear electricity production target set forth in the Federal Tariff Service of Russia was 169.54 billion kWh. The total additional nuclear electricity produced was 2.67 billion kWh (1.6 %);
- a set of measures to reduce the cumulative outage duration was implemented, resulting in a reduction of 27 days;
- a set of measures was implemented to restore the lifetime performance of the graphite stack of RBMK-1000 reactor;
- this resulted in Rostechnadzor issuing a permit to operate Unit 1 of Leningrad NPP;
- an output increasing programme was implemented at operating NPP power units;
- a modernisation programme of operating NPP power units was implemented. In the framework of the lifetime performance extension programme at operating NPP power units, the life extension investments project was implemented in the scope planned at Units 1-3 of Balakovo NPP, Unit 4 of Kursk NPP, Unit 4 of Kola NPP, Unit 2 of Smolensk NPP and Units 1 and 2 of Kalinin NPP; for Unit 3 of Kursk NPP, the investment project was completed and a licence to operate the unit for another 15 years was obtained from Rostechnadzor.
For details, see the annual report of JSC Rosenergoatom Concern for 2013.
Interaction with the Moscow Centre of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO MC)
In 2013, WANO MC had under its jurisdiction 70 power units from 24 nuclear power plants in 10 countries. The total installed capacity of operating power units was 53,659 MW.
Results of 2013:
- 20 technical support missions (TSM) were conducted at the Corporation’s organizations, which involved 18 experts from ROSATOM’s entities;
- an experience exchange visit took place at JSC VNIIAES;
- 454 representatives of the Corporation’s organisations took part in events under the programme “Professional and Technical Development”; and
- peer reviews missions (PRM) were carried out:
- at JSC Rosenergoatom Concern: three PRM, three follow-up PRM, and one follow-up corporate PRM; and
- at JSC Atomenergoremont: one corporate PRM.
Contribution to the energy security of regions of Russia
Of the total electricity generation in Russia, the share of nuclear electricity was 16.8 %. Nuclear generation significantly contributes to the united power grids of Russia (in the European part of the country, the nuclear share is 21.7 %).
Fig. Share of nuclear electricity in total generation by region of Russia
Restoration of lifetime performance of RBMK-100 reactor at Leningrad NPP
Today, RBMK uranium-graphite reactors (from the Russian “large power pressure tube-type reactor”) constitute half of the installed nuclear capacity in Russia. They were the first power reactors made in series in the country. Eleven reactors of this type account for more than one third of output of the Power Generation Division. Operating experience of pilot power units with RBMK-1000s demonstrated that, in the final stage of their service life, radiation and thermal impact leads to changes in graphite properties, changing the shape of the graphite bricks and the stack as a whole. Since part of a graphite brick shrinks and some of it swells, inner stress arises in the brick, leading to longitudinal cracks in the central region of the core. The width of the crack grows and bricks start pushing apart from each other. The general trend is distortion of the graphite columns from the centre of the reactor core towards the periphery that could lead to the situation where the safe operation conditions of the core would be exceeded.
In 2012–2013, a technology was developed to restore the lifetime performance (RLP) of RBMK reactors. The technology is to make vertical longitudinal cuts in the graphite columns, which form local voids required to compensate (straighten) the graphite column of the stack by applying force to them with the use of special tension devices. With that, a substantial margin of the deflection value that is well below the permissible limit is achieved. To implement the technology in the framework of R&D, pilot specimens of the process equipment and tooling were designed. In parallel, a set of calculations and experiments were carried out to justify the possibility and safety of further operation of the reactor after the restoration operations.
As the result of the work done, the lifetime performance of the graphite stack of the reactor was restored at Unit 1 of Leningrad NPP, and the regulatory authorities granted a permit for its further operation. The power unit was connected to the grid on 25 November 2013. The experience obtained at the pilot power unit and the restoration technology confirmed the possibility of reusing the technology at the remaining ten power units with RBMK-1000 reactors to ensure their safe operation in the final stage of their service life. Based on the RLP experience gained at the RBMK-1000 reactor, the RLP Roadmap was developed for other RBMK-1000 power units operated by JSC Rosenergoatom Concern. By early 2014, the RLP activities were completed at Unit 2 of Kursk NPP and planned for Unit 2 of Leningrad NPP in 2014 and for Unit 1 of Kursk NPP in 2015.
According to the available estimates, the power units with RBMK reactors where the RLP technology was used will produce more than 450 billion kWh and yield RUB 640 billion of proceeds for ROSATOM in the coming years.
Fig. Power generation by units with RBMK-1000 reactors, kWh
Improvement of operating efficiency
Results of ROSATOM Production System
Tools of the RPS were applied at the centralised storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (CSF SNF) of Leningrad NPP. By November 2013, the CSF SNF’s team exceeded the target indicators for cutting rate of spent fuel assemblies (SFAs) and achieved the rate of 12 SFAs a day. In future, this will allow the facility to shorten the time required for SNF shipping and obtain a sizeable economic effect.
The experience of Leningrad NPP is also reflected in the growing SFA cutting rate values achieved at SNF SF of Kursk NPP. At the time of the facility’s commissioning, the cutting rate was 4 SFAs a day, and by the end of 2013, its production output reached 10 SFAs a day.
Improvement of energy efficiency
In 2013, the energy saving measures aimed at reducing consumption of energy resources resulted in savings of RUB 1.526 million in monetary terms that is 19.69 % of the reference amount for 2009 in comparable conditions. In addition, savings of of RUB 15 million was achieved through the reduction in volume of discharges. Thus, the total savings of funds owing to the reduction of consumption of resources in 2013, under comparable conditions against the reference amount for 2009, was RUB 1.541 million, or 20.08 % of the 2009 amount.
Safe use of nuclear facilities and safe handling of nuclear material
Based on the defence-in-depth concept, the safety ensuring system of Russian NPPs is the basis of the Division’s technical policy and is regulated by federal NPP safety standards that take into account the IAEA recommendations. All NPPs are equipped with RAW reprocessing facilities; the existing storage facilities are refurbished and new facilities are built on the sites of NPPs, which ensure environmental safety of nuclear power plants during the entire period of their operation.
For details, see the Report sections “Integrated solution to accumulated nuclear legacy problems” and “Ensuring nuclear and radiation safety”.
18.104.22.168. Planned KPIs for 2014 and on the mid-term horizon
- provision of own and raised investment resources in the required volume;
- increasing labour productivity;
- fulfilment of JSC Rosenergoatom Concern’s investment programme;
- fulfilment of the nuclear electricity generation plan;
- fulfilment of plans for development of new activity areas;
- improvement of operating efficiency with the achievement of the target level of specific semi-fixed costs;
- achievement of the target level of the specific total levelised cost of NPP construction;
- retaining the achieved low occupational injury level;
- absence of INES Level 2 operational events across the sector and personnel exposure cases.
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