The State Atomic Energy Corporation ROSATOM

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Nuclear and radiation safety


 РОСАТОМ » Strategy implementation » Integrated solution for accumulated nuclear legacy problems and ensuring nuclear and radiation safety » Nuclear and radiation safety



Sergey Raikov
Director of Nuclear Safety and Licensing Department

“In the reporting year, the nuclear and radiation safety ensuring activity was rather productive. The dose burden of ROSATOM’s personnel followed a pronounced downward trend. In 2013. the collective exposure dose of the personnel decreased by 3.3 man-Sv/year (by 2.8 %) compared to 2012.

In 2013, the individual health physics data were processes for 90.4 % of persons subject to individual health physics monitoring at enterprises of ROSATOM. The number of persons who had a higher individual risk decreased by 0.1 % to 1.3 %.”

2.7.1.1. NRS management system

The Long-term Activity Programme of ROSATOM regulates the process of solving issues of nuclear and radiation safety of the nuclear facilities, personnel and environment in the mid and long term.

The main activity areas of the Corporation in the field of nuclear safety are safe functioning of nuclear facilities and integrated solution of “nuclear legacy” problems.

Fig. Activities of the nuclear and radiation safety complex

The information about nuclear and radiation safety within ROSATOM and its organisations is also provided in the sectoral Safety Report.

2.7.1.2. Nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear facilities

In 2013, the Corporation’s governing bodies and structural units ensured sustainable and safe functioning of the nuclear industry facilities. There were no radiation accidents or overexposures.

In 2013, there were no operational events in excess of INES Level 1 at the Corporation’s enterprises. Over the recent 15 years, the national nuclear power industry has not suffered events which are rated as accidents or incidents as per the INES scale.

The safety of nuclear facilities is evaluated by a number and the scale of accountable operational deviations, which are compared to the International Nuclear Events Scale developed (INES) by the IAEA. Within the scale, events are categorised by seven levels: at upper levels (4–7) they are called “accidents”, at lower levels “incidents” (2–3), and “anomalies” (1). Events that are not safety significant are rated as “below scale” (Level 0). Events that are of no safety relevance are rated as “out of scale” events.

Nuclear power plants

In 2013, there were no event rated above Level 2 as per the INES at Russian nuclear power plants.

In 2013, the operating power units suffered 42 deviations.

There were 41 deviations of Level 0 or ”out of scale” (30 Level 0 events and 11 “out of scale” events) reported.

Fig. Number of operational events at NPP as per the INES scale

One event was rated as Level 1 without consequences for the population and the environment. The event occurred at Kalinin NPP Unit 1 and comsisted of decoupling of the half-clutch “generator rotor-exciter rotor”. It did not have radiological consequences for the population and the environment.

The number of deviations associated with failures of electrical equipment decreased compared to the two preceding years (there were 12 cases in 2013, 17 in 2012, and 20 in 2011). The decrease was achieved through implementation of updated sectoral measures for modernisation and replacement of electrical equipment that had exceeded their service lives.

Owing to the modernisation and replacement of obsolete electrical equipment, the number of deviations due to failures of the equipment decreased. In 2013, there were 12 such instances that accounted for 32 % of all operational events (against 17 and 20 instances in 2012 and 2011, respectively).

There were 10 reactor scrams (shutdowns of critical reactors by emergency protectiive procedures) at Russian NPPs in 2013.

In 2013, there were no incidents at NPPs accompanied by radiation consequences subject to NP-004-08 “Provision for Procedure of Investigation and Accounting of Operational Events at Nuclear Power Plants”. Russia’s NPPs operated safely and reliably; a general trend of safety enhancement of operating NPPs persisted.

NFC facilities

In 2013, at nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) facilities, seven events rated as Level 0/”out of scale” as per the INES scale were reported (at FSUE PA Mayak, JSC SCC, JSC SRC NIIAR); most of them took place during the handling of radioactive materials.

There were no accidents and cases where permissible nuclear safety parameters were exceeded at NFC enterprises.

Research nuclear installations

In 2013, there were four deviations in the operation of RNI: two events in FSUE L. Ya. Karpov NIFKhI at the VVR-Ts reactor, and two at JSC SRC NIIAR at reactors SM-3 and BOR-60. Three RNI operational events were rated as Level 0 and one event was rated as Level 1 as per the INES scale.

2.7.1.3. Physical protection of nuclear radiation hazardous facilities

Main results of 2013

  • by a decision of the Ministry of Interior of Russia, all NRHFs of the Corporation, which are guarded by Internal Troops of the MOI of Russia, were inspected by commissions; the inspection findings confirmed a high level of reliability of their security and physical protection;
  • 12 integrated and targeted in-house checks (jointly with representatives of the Internal Troops of the MOI of Russia) of the physical protection conditions at the sector’s nuclear facilities were conducted;
  • over 37 km of perimeters of the secured areas at NRHFs, including 36 personnel and vehicle checkpoints, were upgraded;
  • in the secured areas, more than 6,500 equipment items were installed as part of the engineering physical protection complexes;
  • the equipment of the automated transportation security system (ATSS) for nuclear and radioactive materials was installed on four special railroad cars and at a newly built dispatch post of JSC MCC; also, ATSS equipment whose service life had expired was replaced on seven railroad cars;
  • 17 railroad cars, 47 trucks and ten dispatcher posts at the sectoral organisations were equipped with ATSS-GLONASS shipment tracking systems;
  • more than 760 specialists were trained in physical protection matters.

There were no thefts of nuclear materials and unauthorised intrusions into the secured areas for sabotage.

2.7.1.4. Preparedness for emergency response

ROSATOM operates the Emergency Prevention and Elimination System (EPES) to ensure the safe operation of the nuclear industry and to protect the personnel, population and environment against potential consequences of accidents (emergencies). The system is a functional subsystem of the Unified National Emergency Prevention and Elimination System (NEPES).

Results of EPES operations

The level of preparedness of forces and capabilities, completeness and realism of emergency plans is evaluated by exercises and drills. In 2013, the Corporation conducted 271 emergency, targeted tactical and desktop exercises and drills, of which 70 were conducted at nuclear power plants.

The Corporation and its organisations’ qualification commissions regularly hold qualification tests of managers, rescuers and emergency rescue teams (ERTs) for their ability to execute emergency rescue activities. Twenty-seven ERTs (six professional and 21 non-professional ERTs) and 1,398 rescuers were qualified and granted or confirmed for a corresponding qualification grade.

2.7.1.5. Sectoral Automated Radiation Monitoring System (SARMS)

The Sectoral Automated Radiation Monitoring System (SARMS), which functions within the Unified National Automated Radiation Monitoring System for the territory of Russia, is one of the most important elements of the state-level monitoring of the radiation situation in NRHF host regions.

The sectoral ARMS includes 26 on-site ARMS of enterprises and organisations of the nuclear industry, including NPPs. The system has a total of 36 stationary posts. Data of multi-year measurements have shown that, in normal operation, the contribution of NPPs to the measured radiation level is negligibly small and the radiation situation at measurement locations corresponds to the natural background.

Data of SARMS radiation monitoring of ROSATOM are publicly accessible in real time at the website: http://www.russianatom.ru/.

Fig. Sectoral Automated Radiation Monitoring System, as of 31.12.2013

2.7.1.6. Industrial safety

In the reporting year, the hazardous production facilities operated by the Corporation’s organisations were re-registered by the departmental (sectoral) section of the State Register. As of 31 December 2013, 836 hazardous production facilities in 100 organisations were registered.

In 2013, not a single sectoral facility of ROSATOM experienced events rated as “an accident at the hazardous production facility”; six incidents were investigated and accounted for.

According to the Industry Agreement on Nuclear Power, Industry and Science for 2012–2014, nuclear industry employers shall finance measures to enhance labour conditions and protection for the enterprises in an amount of no less than 0.5 % of the expenditures for the manufacture of products.

2.7.1.7. Ensuring safe labour conditions

Industrial injury rate

ROSATOM and its organisations carry out activities aimed at the reduction of the industry injury rate and impact of harmful occupational factors on its personnel.

In 2013, the Corporation’s organisations spent RUB 8160 million (in 2012 – RUB 8108 million, in 2011 – RUB 7435 million) for labour protection measures.

Fig. Industry injury rate by divisions

Fig. Comparative data of industry injuries indicator LTIFR

In 2013, the frequency of industry injuries (coefficient Kf – number of industry injuries per 1,000 employees) did not exceeded the values of 2012 and was about four times less than the average level across the country.

Fig. Comparative industry injury data for Russia and ROSATOM, kf

In the reporting year, the rate of injury decreased in five divisions and grew in three divisions of the Corporation. There was a substantial drop in JSC SRC NIIAR (one case against five cases of 2012), JSC ZiO-Podolsk (four cases against eight), Production Association Mayak (seven cases against 14), FSUE Atomflot (three cases against seven). In JSC Rosenergoatom Concern, there were injuries reported that confirmed the rather high level of the safety culture at Russian NPPs.

Thirty-three employees of ROSATOM’s organisations were awarded the title “The Best Labour Protection Worker of the Nuclear Industry” for their achievement of high professional performance indicators.

In the organisations of the sector, a total of 127 people suffered injuries (against 143 people in 2012). Most frequent causes of injuries are falling from elevations (25 %) and moving object impacts (17 %).

There were four fatalities reported for the sector (two cases at JSC PIMCU, one at PA Electrochemical Plant and one at the Directorate of JSC NIKIMT-Atomstroy in Ozersk).

All four cases were investigated by special commissions, which gave recommendations on prevention of such incidents in future.

Occupational illness

Medical examinations of the personnel are arranged for all enterprises of the Corporation to timely diagnose and prevent occupational illnesses.

Most occupational illnesses are chronic illnesses of the respiratory organs and illnesses caused by vibration and noise. The most frequent factors that affect the number of occupational illness cases are a higher level of noise and vibration in the workplace and high gas and dust content in the air of the work area.

In 2013, for the first time, 99 chronic occupational illnesses were diagnosed. The largest number of occupational illnesses was diagnosed among workers and pensioners of JSC PIMCU: 96 chronic illnesses diagnosed in 41 people.

Safety culture development at nuclear facilities

Work to develop safety culture is carried out at all NPPs of ROSATOM.

Main results of 2013:

  • preparatory work to implement the safety culture enhancement process in the management system was completed;
  • a safety culture pattern, its continuous improvement strategy, a system of regulations, a set of methodologies for assessment and self-assessment of the safety culture level, a corporate web portal on issues related to the safety culture have been developed.

In 2014, it is planned to produce the document “ROSATOM’s Policy in the Field of the Safety Culture Improvement at Nuclear Facilities”.

2.7.1.8. Radiation impact on the Corporation’s personnel

Ionising radiation is a specific production factor for ROSATOM’s enterprises.

The radiation safety criteria for personnel are stipulated in the existing radiation safety standard (NRB-99/2009), basic sanitary rules of radiation safety (OSPORB-99/2010) and other regulatory documents. Most of the enterprises meet these requirements.

Personnel exposure doses

In 2013, in the Corporation’s organisations, 67,578 people of Group A were subject to individual health physics monitoring.

Fig. Distribution of Group A personnel by range of effective dose for a year

The annual average effective exposure dose of the personnel (AAED) was 1.67 mSv; over the past five years, this value has remained nearly unchanged within a range of ±0.03 mSv.

For 53.0 % of the sector employees’, dose burdens did not exceed the main dose limit for the general public of 1 mSv per year.

Fig. Annual average effective exposure dose of the personnel, mSv/year

In 2013, there were no cases where the dose limits established by NRB-99/2009 for personnel were exceeded. Among the personnel, there are still no persons whose total effective dose exceeds 100 mSv over five subsequent years. There is not a single person with the sector’s enterprises with a dose exceeding the annual limit of 20 mSv.

Fig. Personnel exposure indicators

Number of people subject to
individual health monitoring
201120122013
68,461 68,396 67,578
AAED ≤ 1 mSv 36,058 35,073 35,808
Σ AAED > 100 mSv over 5 years 0 0 0
20 < AAED < 50 mSv 28 19 0

Assessment of individual risk of employees

In 2013, the sectoral enterprises used the ARMIR computer system to assess individual radiation risks. This work was carried out to optimise the radiation protection of the personnel and improve the effectiveness of the medical insurance aimed at rendering aid to the persons within the higher risk group. In 2013, the ARMIR was used to process the individual data of 90.8 % (91.4 % in 2012 and 90.4 % in 2011) of the total number of employees subject to the individual health monitoring at the Corporation’s enterprises. For 772 people, the individual radiation risk exceeded the value of 10-3 (in 2012 a higher risk was reported for 865 people and in 2011 for 866 people). They are mainly veterans of the nuclear industry who received most of their doses during their early work years. The percentage of persons with higher individual risk is 1.25 %. (1.3 % in 2012).

Fig. Individual radiological risks of the employees





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