The State Atomic Energy Corporation ROSATOM

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Glossary


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АА1000 Stakeholders Engagement Standard a generally applicable regulatory framework for the planning, execution, assessment, provision of information and non-financial auditing of the stakeholder engagement quality in the organisational reporting and accountability process in the field of efficient management.
Becquerel (Bq) the unit of nuclide activity in a radiation source equal to the nuclide activity at which one decay takes place per second.
BOO (Build – Own – Operate) contract a contract that provides for the obligation of the construction, ownership and operation of a facility.
Closed nuclear fuel cycle a nuclear fuel cycle, in which spent nuclear fuel is processed for uranium and plutonium extraction for nuclear fuel refabrication.
Contaminated lands lands that have been contaminated with different, including radioactive, substances. These, for instance, include lands adjoining ROSATOM”s sites or residential areas.
Corporate social accountability a concept based on an organisation taking into account stakeholder requests. This is a package of obligations generated, on a voluntary basis, by the organisation’s executives with regard for the interests of personnel, shareholders, local communities in the operations areas, state and municipal power bodies, and other stakeholders. These obligations are largely fulfilled at the expense of the organisation’s funds and are aimed at the implementation of significant internal and external social (in the broad sense of the word) programmes, the results of which contribute to the development of the organisation, to the improved reputation and image thereof, as well as to the constructive stakeholder engagement.
Depleted uranium uranium which contains less isotopes of U-235 than natural uranium (for example, uranium in the spent fuel of reactors fuelled by natural uranium).
Dialogue with stockholders (as part of the annual report preparation) an arrangement undertaken under the AA100 international standards for the engagement of representatives of the stakeholders during the report preparation to enhance the organisation’s transparency and accountability.
Disturbed lands lands that have lost their economic value or are the result of adverse environmental impacts due to soil disturbance, regimen disturbance or formation of a man-made relief as the result of industrial activities.
Dump of radioactive material controlled entry of radionuclides into water bodies with liquid waste of a nuclear facility (e.g. a nuclear plant).
Enrichment (isotopic) a) the content of atoms of a certain isotope in the isotopic mixture of the same element if this exceeds the share of the given isotope in a naturally occurring mixture (expressed as a percentage); b) a process resulting in an increased content of a certain isotope in the isotopic mixture.
EPC (Engineering – Procurement - Construction) contract a contract that provides for the obligation of the turnkey construction of a facility, including the facility engineering, supply and construction obligations. Unlike a BOO Contract, it does not provide for the ownership of the facility to be built.
EPCM (Engineering – Procurement – Construction - Management) contract a contract that provides for the obligation of the turnkey construction (including engineering, supply and construction) and management of a facility. Unlike a BOO Contract, it does not provide for the ownership of the facility to be built.
Fast neutrons neutrons whose kinetic energy exceeds a particular given magnitude. This magnitude is variable in a broad range and depends on the application (reactor physics, protection or radiation monitoring). In reactor physics, this magnitude is mostly selected as equalling 0.1 MeV.
First criticality a stage in the nuclear plant commissioning process, including the reactor fuelling, first criticality and required physical experiments conducted at the power level at which heat is removed from the reactor thanks to natural heat losses.
Fuel assembly a package of fuel elements (rods, bars, plates and others) held together with the aid of spacer grids and other structural members, which are integral during transportation and in-pile irradiation. Assemblies are loaded into the nuclear reactor core.
Fuel pellet a pellet of compacted uranium dioxide is the basis of nuclear fuel and is contained inside fuel elements.
Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) an international reporting system concerning economic, environmental and social performance, based on the Sustainability Reporting Guidelines, Technical Protocols and industry applications.
HEU-LEU Agreement the Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the United States of America Concerning the Disposition of Highly-Enriched Uranium Extracted from Nuclear Weapons, under which Russia had committed itself to supplying to the U.S. for 20 years (until the end of 2013) low-enriched uranium (LEU) obtained from 500 tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) extracted from nuclear warheads and found by the Russian side to be excessive for defensive applications.
IAEA safeguards a verification system established in the framework of the international nuclear non-proliferation policy, which is applied to the peaceful use of atomic energy; the International Atomic Energy Agency is charged with the implementation of this policy.
Installed capacity utilisation factor (ICUF) the relation of the actual electricity generation by a reactor facility during the period of operation to the electricity generation during rated-power operations with no shutdowns.
Integrated report a report that consolidates all material data on the organisation’s strategy, corporate management, performance indicators and prospects such that it would “show” in an integrated way the organisation’s economic, social and environmental status. The report gives a clear and distinct idea about how the organisation carries out reasonable control, as well as on how it creates its value at the present time or will create it in future.
International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC) an international organisation engaged in the development of a global integrated reporting standard to allow for managerial, financial, social, environmental and other information to be provided in an understandable, concise, self-consistent and comparable reporting document. The IIRC objective is to develop versatile approaches to the delivery of corporate reports so as to contribute to the sustainable development of a global economy.
ISAE 3000 International Standard on Assurance Engagements an international standard for a non-financial reporting audit.
Key (for the purpose of public reporting) organisations organisations whose activities are of a major social and political importance and/or significant for the positioning of ROSATOM in Russian and international markets.
Key performance indicators (KPI) key efficiency indicators meeting the goals of the Rosatom State Corporation which disclose the efficiency and performance of organisations (and of activities by division) and the individual efficiency of employees.
Natural background ionising radiation formed by space radiation and ionising radiation of naturally distributed natural radionuclides (on the surface of the Earth, in the air, in food products, water and human body, and so on).
Non-financial reporting reporting provided by an organisation as to its performance outside the scope of manufacturing and financial activities (and the management of this performance). Non-financial reporting includes sustainability reports, corporate social accountability reports, environmental reports, charity reports and others.
Nuclear fuel a material containing fissionable nuclides which, being placed in the nuclear reactor, makes it possible to sustain a nuclear chain reaction.
Nuclear fuel cycle the sequence of manufacturing processes for ensuring the operation of nuclear reactors from uranium production to the disposal of radioactive waste.
Nuclear plant safety the property of a nuclear power plant to ensure, within the specified limits, the radiological safety of the personnel, the public and the environment during normal operation and in the event of an accident.
Nuclear power a branch of power engineering that uses atomic energy for electricity and heat generation.
Nuclear safety a general term that describes the properties of a nuclear facility to keep the radiological impact on the personnel, the public and the environment within the permissible limits during normal operation and in the event of an accident.
Nuclear weapons nonproliferation treaty an international agreement for arms race limitation intended to avoid the emergence of new states possessing nuclear weapons. The treaty places the states possessing nuclear weapons under the obligation not to disseminate nuclear weapons and control such weapons, while it places non-nuclear states under the obligation not to produce or purchase nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosives.
Operator an organisation that possesses the regulator permit to operate a nuclear plant or another nuclear facility.
Organisational business model a model including the key business processes and the resources (capital) employed, with which the organisation creates and maintains its value in the long term.
Phase Gate the Phase Gate approach to carrying out investment activities, a principle of planning and carrying out investment activities that suggests, when applied, that investment projects are broken down into phases, of which each is preceded by a Gate Review of the results achieved and the further project implementation plans and risk, and a decision is made on the further project implementation phase to be proceeded to.
Pilot operation a stage in the nuclear plant commissioning from the power start-up to the plant’s acceptance for commercial operation.
Power start-up a stage in the nuclear plant commissioning during which the plant starts to generate energy and the plant’s operation is checked at different power levels up to that specified for commercial operations.
Public assurance of the report the procedure for the assurance of the report by representatives of the major stakeholders to confirm the relevance and completeness of the information disclosed in the report, as well as for the organisation’s response to the stakeholders’ comments and proposals, as organised in accordance with the АА1000SES international standard. The public certification result is the public assurance statement signed by the stakeholder representatives and entered in the report.
Radiation exposure the total of individual exposure doses received or planned in the operations to decommission, maintain, repair, replace or dismantle components of a nuclear facility, e.g. of a nuclear plant.
Radiation monitoring acquisition of information on the radiological conditions in the organisation and in the environment and on human exposure levels (includes dose control and radiometric monitoring).
Radiation safety a set of arrangements seeking to limit the exposure of personnel and the public to the lowest possible radiation dose values in a socially acceptable way, as well as to avoid the early effects of exposure and keep the delayed radiation effects within tolerable limits.
Radioactive release atmospheric emission of radionuclides as the result of nuclear plant operation.
Radioactive waste nuclear materials and radioactive wastes of no further use.
Radioactive waste processing operations aimed at changing the aggregate state and/or physical and chemical properties of radioactive waste and carried out to convert it into such forms as would be suitable for transportation, storage and/or disposal.
Radioactive waste disposal safe disposition of radioactive waste in repositories or any places that rule out waste withdrawal or the potential of radioactive releases into the environment.
Recommendations of the Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs (RUIE) for Use in the Practice of Management and Corporate Nonfinancial Reporting (key performance indicators) a system of economic, social and environmental performance indicators for non-financial reports, as developed by the RUIE for the purpose of contributing to the introduction of responsible business principles. It is based on a number of underlying documents developed by UN structures (including the UN Global Compact), the Global Reporting Initiative, as well as methodological and procedural recommendations of the Russian Federation’s Federal State Statistics Service and guidance of the RUIE (Social Charter of Russian Business, Recommendations on the Preparation of Non-financial Reports “Five Steps Towards the Social Sustainability of Companies” and others).
Recultivated lands disturbed and exhausted lands on which activities have been conducted for the reestablishment of soil fertility, economic reuse of the plots of land disturbed by operations and so on, which have been brought to the condition where it is fit for the intended use (in farming, forestry, water management and other fields).
Research reactor a nuclear reactor designed for use as a subject of research for the purpose of obtaining data on reactor physics and technology, which is required for the design and development of a reactor of the same type or of components thereof.
Separative work unit (SWU) a measure of the efforts applied to separate a given quantity of a material of a certain isotopic composition into two fractions with different isotopic compositions; it does not depend on the separation process used; kilogram is a separative work unit, and the enrichment and energy consumption cost is calculated per kilo of the separative work performed.
Stakeholders physical and/or legal persons, as well as groups of persons, who affect the organisation’s activities through their actions and/or are subject to effects from the organisation. An organisation may have different stakeholders (public and international supervising authorities, shareholders, consumers of goods and services, business partners, suppliers and contractors, civil society organisations, local communities, trade unions and others) with both mutually remote and conflicting interests.
Sustainability Reporting Guidelines (Global Reporting Initiative, GRI) The Sustainability Reporting Guidelines containing the guidelines that define the content and ensure the quality of reporting information, standard reporting disclosures comprising the performance indicators of the organisation’s economic, environmental and social impacts, approaches to the management of said impacts, and other characteristics, as well as recommendations on specific technical aspects of reporting.
Sustainable development development that covers present-day needs, while not endangering the capability of future generations to cover their needs. In this connection, the organisation’s transparency and accountability with respect to its economic, environmental and social impacts are the fundamental requirements applicable to every economic entity.
Uranium conversion a chemical engineering process of transforming uranium-containing materials into uranium hexafluoride.
Uranium hexafluoride a chemical compound of uranium and fluorine (UF6). This is the only highly volatile uranium compound (when heated to 53oC, uranium hexafluoride passes directly from solid into gas) and is used as feedstock for the separation of uranium-238 and uranium-235 isotopes using a gas-diffusion technology or a gas-centrifuge technology, and for production of enriched uranium.
Uranium ore enrichment a combination of processes for the primary treatment of uranium-bearing mineral raw material to separate uranium from other minerals contained in the ore. This does not involve any changes in the content of minerals, but only a mechanical separation thereof with the resultant production of an ore concentrate.
VVER a water-cooled water-moderated power reactor, in which water is used both as the coolant and the moderator. The most common type of Russian NPP reactors has two modifications: VVER-440 and VVER-1000.
Nuclear plant safety the property of a nuclear plant to ensure, within the specified limits, the radiation safety of the personnel, the public and the environment during normal operation and in the event of accidents.
Nuclear power a branch of power engineering that uses atomic energy for electricity and heat generation.




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